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Canada

Example content from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Canada
Vertical triband (red, white, red) with a red maple leaf in the centre A shield divided into four rectangles over a triangle. The first rectangle contains three lions passant guardant in gold on red; the second, a red lion rampant on gold; the third, a gold harp on blue; the fourth, three gold fleurs-de-lis on blue. The triangle contains three red maple leaves on a white background. A gold helmet sits on top of the shield, upon which is a crowned lion holding a red maple leaf. On the right is a lion rampant flying the Union Flag. On the left is a unicorn flying a fleurs-de-lis flag. A red ribbon around the shield says "desiderantes meliorem patriam". Below is a blue scroll inscribed "A mari usque ad mare" on a wreath of flowers.
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin)
"From Sea to Sea"
Anthem: "O Canada"
Royal anthem"God Save the Queen"[1][2]
Projection of North America with Canada in green
Capital Ottawa
45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.4°N 75.667°W / 45.4; -75.667
Largest city Toronto
Official language(s) English and French
Recognised regional languages Chipewyan, Cree, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, Slavey (North and South) and Tłįchǫ[3]
Demonym Canadian
Government Federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy[4]
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
 -  Governor General David Johnston
 -  Prime Minister Stephen Harper
 -  Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Commons
Establishment
 -  Constitution Act, 1867 July 1, 1867 
 -  Statute of Westminster December 11, 1931 
 -  Canada Act April 17, 1982 
Area
 -  Total 9,984,670 km2 (2nd)
3,854,085 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 8.92 (891,163 km2/344,080 mi2)
Population
 -  2012 estimate 34,795,000[5] (35th)
 -  2011 census 33,476,688[6] 
 -  Density 3.41/km2 (228th)
8.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $1.391 trillion[7] (14th)
 -  Per capita $40,457[7] (15th)
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $1.758 trillion[7] (11th)
 -  Per capita $51,147[7] (10th)
Gini (2005) 32.1[8] (medium
HDI (2011) increase 0.908[9] (very high) (6th)
Currency Canadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zone (UTC−3.5 to −8)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC−2.5 to −7)
Date formats dd-mm-yyyy, mm-dd-yyyy, and yyyy-mm-dd (CE)
Drives on the Right
ISO 3166 code CA
Internet TLD .ca
Calling code +1
Canada portal

Canada (play /ˈkænədə/) is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Spanning over 9.9 million square kilometres, Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area, and its common border with the United States is the longest land border in the world.

The land that is now Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled, along the region's Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Balfour Declaration of 1926 and reaffirmed by the Statute of Westminster of 1931, which declared self-governing dominions within the British Empire to be equal. The Canada Act of 1982 finally severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British Parliament.

Canada is a federal state that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. One of the world's most highly-developed countries, Canada has a diversified economy that is reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade – particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. It is a member of the G7, G8, G20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth of Nations, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN. With the sixth-highest Human Development Index globally, Canada has one of the highest standards of living and per capita income in the world.






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